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Amaterasu is the goddess of the sun, but also the goddess of the universe. Her full name is Amaterasu-omikami, which is translated into The Great August God who Shines in Heaven.
Amaterasu is the sister of Susanoo, the god of sea and storms, and Tsukuyomi, the god of the moon. They were the children of Izanagi, born when he purified himself in water after failing to save his wife Izanami from hell.
Originally she shared the Sky with Tsukuyomi, the god of the Moon, but he killed the goddess of food, Uke Mochi, out of disgust for how the food was produced. Amaterasu labeled him an evil god and left him, thus separating day and night.
Amaterasu also had a falling out with Susanoo, when after an argument over who was the superior deity, Susanoo destroyed her rice fields and threw a flayed horse through her loom, killing one of her attendants. Enraged and in grief, Amaterasu retreated to Ama-no-Iwato ("heavenly rock cave"), depriving the world of light, and Susanoo was banished from the heavens. The other gods and goddesses, after much struggle, finally lured Amaterasu back out of the cave after Ameno Uzume placed a mirror and a string of Magatama on a tree nearby, and began to dance, performing a strip-tease that caused an uproar. When Amaterasu peered out of the cave to see what the commotion was about, she was struck by her shining reflection, and the other gods grabbed her and blocked her cave with a large rock, finally persuading her to stay.
Amaterasu mended relations with Susanoo after he gave her Kusanagi, the sword he had found in Yamata no Orochi's corpse, and the mirror, magatama, and sword were bequeathed to her descendant the Emperor as the Imperial Regalia of Japan.